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The Business and Labour chapter

In over 80 pages of detail, the Business and Labour chapter provides a comprehensive picture of the business environment in South Africa, showing who does what business and what constraints or advantages they face in doing it in South Africa.

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For more detail on what the chapter contains, you will find the complete table of contents below.

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Table of contents:

BUSINESS 328
All sizes of business 328
Enterprises by size, 2004 and 2007 328
Contribution to GDP by size of business, 2006 328
Contribution to employment by size of business, 2012 329
Registered businesses by type, 2012 329
Public and private ownership of fixed capital stock 330
Fixed capital stock by ownership, 2000 and 2011 330
State-owned enterprises 330
State-owned enterprises, 2010/11 330
Entrepreneurship 331
Global entrepreneurship monitor 331
Entrepreneurial activity by country, 2011 331
Listed companies 332
Global rankings 332
South African companies ranked in the Forbes Top 1 000 companies, 2012 332
The top companies 333
South Africa’s top 100 companies by turnover, 2012 333
Top five companies by sector, 2012 335
The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) 337
The JSE all-share index, 1998–2011 337
Small business 337
All small businesses 337
Small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) by sector 337
Small business by size, 2010 337
Small business by age, 2010 337
Small business by stage, 2010 338
Small business owners by race and sex, 2010 338
Small business owners by age group, 2010 339
Small business owners by highest level of education, 2010 339
Franchises 339
Franchise systems by business category, 2008 339
Growth in franchise business units, 2006 and 2008 340
Franchise contribution to GDP, 2006 and 2008 340
Total employment in franchises, 2008 341
Average employment and investment per employee in franchises, 2008 341
Comparative statistics 342
Comparative statistics on small business, India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) 342
Business by sector 342
Sectoral contributions to GDP, jobs, and exports, 2011 342
Agriculture 343
Agricultural production by sector and product, 1999/2000 and 2009/10 343
Horticultural crop production, 1999/2000 and 2009/10 343
Animal product production, 1999/2000 and 2009/10  344
Agricultural production by sector, 1999/2000 and Oct-09 344
Mining 345
Contribution to mineral sales, 2012 345
Micro components, 2010 345
Manufacturing 346
Micro components, manufacturing, 2011 346
New car sales, production, and exports, 1995–2011 348
Physical infrastructure 349
Airports 349
Aircraft movements at South Africa’s ten major airports, 2002/03–2011/12 349
Energy 349
Electricity 349
Electricity generation by fuel type, 2009 349
Electricity usage by sector, 2009 350
Electricity capacity, 2012 351
Projected electricity supply and demand until 2020 352
Electricity price adjustment vs CPI, 1996–2011 353
Main sources of energy 353
Coal 353
Coal resources, production, consumption, and exports, 2010 353
Recoverable coal reserve holders, selected countries, 2008 354
Natural gas 354
Natural gas production, imports, and consumption, 2010 354
Oil and petroleum 355
Oil reserves, production, refinery capacity, imports, and consumption 355
Oil imports, 2011/12 355
Refinery ownership and crude throughput, 2012 355
Petroleum and diesel consumption by province, 2009 356
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions 356
CO2 emissions, 1990–2008 357
Ports 358
Tonnage handled at South African ports, 2003–09 358
Total tonnage handled at South African ports (thousand tonnes), 2003–09 358
Railways 359
The rail network 359
Railways and roads 359
Road versus rail, 2007–2009 359
Roads 359
All roads 359
Water 360
South African dams, 2011 360
Water use by sector, 2010 360
The business environment 361
Competitiveness 361
Global Competitiveness Index rankings, 2012–13 361
South Africa’s ranking on the Global Competitiveness Index’s 12 pillars, 2012–13 362
South Africa’s ranking on the Global Competitiveness Index in detail, 2012–13 363
World Competitiveness Report, global rankings, 2012 366
Digital economy 367
Digital Economy Rankings, selected countries, 2010 367
Digital Economy Rankings, emerging markets, 2010 368
Networked Readiness Index, selected countries, 2012 369
Networked Readiness Index, emerging markets, 2012 370
Ease of doing business 371
Key components 371
South Africa’s ranking for ease of doing business, 2012 371
Financial development 372
Financial Development Index, 2011 372
Trading 373
Ease of trading across borders, selected countries, 2012 373
Ease of trading across borders, emerging markets, 2012 374
Ease of trading across borders, selected African countries, 2012 375
Tax 376
Business tax, selected countries, 2011 376
Business tax, emerging markets, 2011 377
Business tax, selected African countries, 2011 378
Mining attractiveness 379
Attractiveness of countries for mining investment, Dec-11 379
South Africa’s rankings for attractiveness for mining investment, 2009/10–2011/12 380
Economic freedom 381
Economic freedom of the world (Heritage Foundation), selected countries, 2012 381
Economic freedom of the world (Heritage Foundation), emerging markets, 2012 382
Economic freedom of the world (Heritage Foundation), selected African countries, 2012 383
Economic freedom of the world (Economic Freedom Network), selected countries, 2009–10 384
Economic freedom of the world (Economic Freedom Network), emerging markets, 2009–10 385
Economic freedom of the world (Economic Freedom Network), selected African countries, 2009–10 386
Productivity 387
Change in total employment, real remuneration per worker, and labour productivity in the non-agricultural, non-domestic sector, 1994–2011 387
Labour productivity, global rankings, 2010 388
Overall productivity, global rankings, 2010 389
Black Economic Empowerment 390
Proposed changes to the generic scorecard 390
The proposed new generic scorecard, 2012 390
JSE black directorships, 2008–10 392
Change in JSE black directorships, 2008–10 393
Black Economic Empowerment, 1995–2009 393
BEE transaction contribution to total transaction value, 1994–2009 394
Other 394
Ownership 394
Education 394
Employment 394
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 395
Trade unions 395
Trade unions and membership, 1994–2010 395
Cosatu affiliate membership, 1991–2012 396
Cosatu membership as a proportion of total employed, 1994 and 2012 397
Skill levels of Cosatu members, 2012 397
Income levels of Cosatu members and others, 2012 398
Income levels of Cosatu members, 2012 398
Income levels of other workers, 2012 398
Rivals to Cosatu affiliates, 2012 399
Bargaining councils 401
Bargaining councils, 1996–2011 401
Annual salary negotiations by type, 2011 and 2012 402
Annual salary negotiations by type, 2012 402
Wage settlements 403
Wage settlements and the inflation rate, 1998–2011 403
 Average wage settlement by major sectors and unions, 2011 404
Average minimum monthly wage across major sectors, 2011 405
Average wage increase by province, 2011 405
Strikes and lockouts 406
Mandays lost as a result of strikes, 1979–2011 406
Work stoppages by province, 2003 and 2011 407
Working days lost by industry, 2011 407
Work stoppages by duration, 2010 and 2011 407
Mandays lost in the top six strikes, 2011 408
Top six strikes by duration, 2011 408
Strike triggers (proportion of mandays lost due to triggers), 1987–2011 409
Strike triggers, 2011 409
Violence in strikes 410
Benefits 410
Proportion of employees receiving benefits by number of hours worked, 2003 and 2011 410
Labour legislation 411
Labour Relations Amendment Bill of 2012 411
The Basic Conditions of Employment Amendment Bill of 2012  412
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