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The Employment chapter

The 70-page Employment chapter shows you the winners and losers in South Africa’s labour market. It is packed with detail on employment, unemployment, employment equity, labour shortages, and job creation. Most indicators are broken down by race, sex, province, and industry, and show trends over the last decade.

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For more detail on what the chapter contains, you will find the complete table of contents below.

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Table of contents:

THE OVERALL EMPLOYMENT PICTURE 216
Labour market trends 216
Labour market trends 2001 and 2012 216
Labour market trends, 2011–12 217
Change in labour market indicators, 2001–12 and 2011–12 218
Employment, unemployment, and discouraged workseekers, 1994–2012 218
Change in employment and GDP, 1995–2012 219
Dependency on employed population, 1994–2012 220
Labour market participation and absorption rates 220
Labour market participation by race, 1994–2012 221
Labour market participation rate, 1994–2012 221
Labour market participation rate by race and sex, 2012 222
Factors affecting labour market participation, 2011 222
Labour market participation and social grants 223
Labour force participation and unemployment rates, selected countries, 1990 and 2010 224
Labour force participation and unemployment rates, emerging markets, 1990 and 2010 225
Labour force absorption rate by race, 2001–12 226
Labour market participation and absorption rates, 2001–12 226
Economically active population 227
Definition 227
Economically active population by race, 2001–12 227
Economically active population by race, 2012 228
Economically active population by race and sex, 2012 228
EMPLOYMENT 229
Stats SA vs Adcorp estimates of employment 229
Employment by race, 1994–2012 229
Overall employment by economic sector and industry 230
Overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001–12 230
Change in overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001–12 and 2011–12 231
Employment by industry, sex, and race 232
Employment by industry and sex, 2001 and 2012 232
Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2012 (actual numbers) 233
Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2012 (proportions) 234
Employment by occupation 235
Employment by occupation, 2001 and 2012 235
Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2012 (actual numbers) 236
Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2012 (proportions) 237
Employment equity 238
Employment equity employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2011 238
Employment equity top management employment by race, sex, and industry, 2011 239
Employment equity proportion of employed with disabilities, 2001–11 239
Employment in management by race and sex, 2000–11 240
Top management by race and sex, 2011 240
Employment equity in context, 2011 241
Black employees in the workforce at different levels of seniority, 1996–2011 242
Segments of the working population 243
Non-agricultural, non-domestic formal sector 243
Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector employment, 2011–12 243
Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector employment, 2006–12 244
Informal sector 245
Informal sector employment (non-agricultural) by industry, 2006–12 245
Agriculture 245
Employment in agriculture by sector, 2001–12 245
Paid workers in the formal agricultural sector, 2007–09 246
Private households 246
Employment in private households, 2001–12 246
Employment in the public sector 247
The public service 247
State employees as a proportion of total employment, 1999–2011 247
State employees by province and sex, 2011 248
State employees by province and race (actual numbers), 2011 248
State employees by province and race (proportions), 2011 248
State employees by race and sex, 2011 249
State employees by level of management, 2010 249
State employees with disabilities by province, 2010 250
Employees in national departments by race, 2011 251
State-owned enterprises and public institutions 252
Employees in state-owned enterprises and public institutions by race, 2011 252
Employees of general government 253
Employees by level of government, 2011 253
Expanded Public Works Programme 254
Number and average length of work opportunities created by the EPWP, 2004/05–2011/12 254
Characteristics of the employed 254
Employment by age group, 2012 254
Employment by highest level of education, 2012 255
Job creation 255
Factors affecting job creation, emerging market comparisons, 2000–09 255
Job creation in public sector programmes 256
UNEMPLOYMENT 257
Statistics 258
Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2012 (official definition) 258
Number of unemployed (official definition), 1994–2012 258
Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2012 (expanded definition) 259
Number of unemployed (expanded definition), 1994–2012 259
Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2012 (official definition) 260
Unemployment rate (official definition), 1994–2012 260
Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2012 (expanded definition) 261
Unemployment rate (expanded definition), 1994–2012 261
Characteristics of the unemployed (official definition) 262
Unemployment by industry and occupation, 2012 262
Categories of unemployed people, 2012 262
Unemployment by age group, 2012 263
Unemployment rate by age group, 2012 263
 Unemployment numbers and rates by age, race, and sex, 2012 264
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2012 265
Unemployment by length of time, 2012 265
Job search activities of the unemployed, 2011 266
Top five job search activities of the unemployed, 2011 266
International comparisons 267
Unemployment rates, international comparisons, 2012 267
UNDERUTILISATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION OF LABOUR 268
Not economically active 268
Persons not economically active, 2012 268
Discouraged workseekers 269
Discouraged workseekers by race, 2001–12 269
Discouraged workseekers by race and sex, 2011–12 270
Change in discouraged workseekers by race, 2011–12 270
LABOUR SHORTAGES 271
Job vacancies by industry, 2011 271
Job vacancies by occupation, 2011 271
Job vacancies by level of education required, 2011 272
PROVINCIAL LABOUR MARKET DATA 273
Overall data 273
Economically active population by province, 2012 273
Trends 273
Labour market trends by province, 2011–12 273
Change in unemployment rate by province, 2011–12 275
Unemployment 276
Unemployment numbers by province, 2005–12 276
Unemployment rate by province, 2005–12 276
MUNICIPAL LABOUR MARKET DATA 277
Labour market status 277
Labour market status by district municipality, 2011 277
Employment by industry and district municipality, 2011 279
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